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aldol condensation low percent yield

The theoretical yield is known to be 19 grams. 233, p. 83., DOI:, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in The melting point range for our Sources, 2008, vol. I started with 2.1g of benzil, 2.1 g of dibenzyl ketone, 4ml of KOH solution, and I ended up creating 1,38 g of tetraphenylcyclopentadienone. It was created by reacting benzil with dibenzyl ketone. CAS  Aldol Condensation Report.docx - Aldol Condensation A Percent Yield The percent yield for my aldol product was 20 This is a poor yield as Dr Fjetland, The percent yield for my aldol product was 20%. Kottapalli, K.R., Monique, G., Jaime, S.V., and Francois, F., J. Compound MW … Power. Chem., 2006, vol. It's possible for percent yield to be over 100%, which means more sample was recovered from a reaction than predicted. percent yield = (actual yield/theoretical yield) x 100%. Usually, percent yield is lower than 100% because the actual yield is often less than the theoretical value. Fractional Distillation and Gas Chromatography. Catal., A, 2000, vol. First, my product looked visibly, different from most other students. 166, p. 265. Catal., A, 2004, vol. This is a poor yield as Dr. Fjetland explained that the yield is typically higher for this reaction than most other reactions. Commun., 2004, vol. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. For example, the decomposition of magnesium carbonate forms 15 grams of magnesium oxide in an experiment. 272, p. 229. Noda Pérez, C., Henriques, C.A., Antunes, O.A.C., and Monteiro, J.L.F., J. Mol. 131, p. 317. The influence of several reaction parameters, such as temperature and catalyst loading, was investigated. Determine the mass of your dry product and determine percent yield. - Experiment 6 - Aldol Condensation Objective To provide experience with Aldol condensation, a useful reaction to prepare conjugated carbonyl systems. The high catalytic activity of modified CaO suggests that heterogeneous aldolisation was greatly improved by changing its hydrophilic properties. Determine the melting point and compare to the literature value. Google Scholar. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Eng. Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. Wang, Y.B., Yang, D., Zheng, X.H., Jiang, Z.Y., and Li, J., J. Raquel, G. and Timothy, M.S., J. Mol. The humidity test over modified CaO reveals that the basic sites of modified CaO are resistant to CO2 and moisture. Article  Nucleophilic Substitution Lab Report.docx. 38, p. 937. Correspondence to Usually, you have to calculate the theoretical yield based on the balanced equation. Campanati, M., Franceschini, S., Piccolo, O., Vaccari, A., and Zicmanis, A., Catal. 173, p. 115. Sci., 1997, vol. Reasons for this can include incomplete or competing reactions and loss of sample during recovery. First, my product looked visibly different from most other students. It is calculated to be the experimental yield divided by theoretical yield multiplied by 100%. For example, the Robinson annulation reaction sequence features an aldol condensation; the Wieland–Miescher ketone product is an important starting material for many organic syntheses. Catal., 2009, vol. Ying Tang. 164, p. 139. Wang, J., Yan, T., Tang, Y. et al. It was a much more saturated yellow color and, seemed less brittle as well as it was harder to get the product into the capillary tube to, perform the mel-temp. How do I calculate the limiting reagent and percent yield for creating tetraphenylcyclopentadienone in the lab from by aldol condensation. This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 2 pages. Clacens, J.M., Genuit, D., Delmotte, L., Garcia-Ruiz, A., Bergeret, G., Montiel, R., Lopez, J., and Figueras, F., J. 42, p. 21. Theoretical Yield Definition in Chemistry, How to Calculate Theoretical Yield of a Reaction, How to Calculate Limiting Reactant and Theoretical Yield, Limiting Reactant Definition (Limiting Reagent), Redox Reactions: Balanced Equation Example Problem, Example Problem of Mass Relations in Balanced Equations, Heat of Formation Table for Common Compounds, Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College, actual yield is the amount of product obtained from a chemical reaction, theoretical yield is the amount of product obtained from the stoichiometric or. 183, p. 454. Catal., 1998, vol. Tang, Y., Xu, J.F., and Gu, X.F., J. Chem. You take the number of grams of reactant you have, convert it to moles, and then use this number of moles to find out how many grams of product to expect. Chem. I, think there were a few reasons I got the results that I did. Rev., 1995, vol. Catal. An Aldol yield higher than 98.9% was obtained after the reaction was conducted for 3 h. This time interval is considerably shorter when compared to a period of 12 h needed for the commercial CaO to reach 92.1% yield under optimum activation. Intermed., 2012, vol. Kinetics and Catalysis Aldol condensation of acetophenone and benzaldehyde, as well as various benzaldehydes was carried out efficiently to produce chalcone with a good selectivity and high yields by using modified CaO as a solid base catalyst. For this experiment we obtained 0.1963 g of product. Podrebarac, G.G., Ng, F.T.T., and Rempel, G.L., Chem. High efficient Aldol condensation reaction utilizing modified calcium oxide as stable solid base catalyst. Raju, V., Radhakrishnan, R., Jaenicke, S., and Chuah, G.K., Catal. One last potential source of. All you need to do is plug the values into the formula: percent yield = actual yield / theoretical yield x 100%. A: Chem., 2001, vol. If the actual and theoretical yield ​are the same, the percent yield is 100%. What reactant is your percent yield based on? loss was not being able to scrape all of the product off of the filter paper after it had dried. It can also be a source of error if the excess is due to incomplete removal of water or other impurities from the sample. This can happen when other reactions were occurring that also formed the product. 5, p. 145. Aldol Condensation A. Another reason I, could have attained a lower yield is that a lot of the product I created did not make it to, the weigh boat to be massed. 125, p. 313. 221, p. 483. The type of aldehyde has great influence on the yield of Aldol condensation. Hattori, H., Chem. 95, p. 537. This could have led to a lower yield. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. This leads me to believe I may have added the wrong amounts of, reactants or the NaOH solution. volume 57, pages439–445(2016)Cite this article.

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